Autonomous Driving and ADAS

Technology to realize Autonomous Driving

Here, we will explain the mechanism of Autonomous Driving.The autonomous movement is realized by performing the three processes of "cognition", "judgment", "operation" in conjunction with Autonomous Driving .

In the following, we will explain the technical elements necessary for Autonomous Driving .

Technological elements necessary for Autonomous Driving

What you need for Autonomous Driving is important to accurately repeat the three actions of "cognition", "judgment", "operation" like people drive.

Autonomous Driving is important to have a sensor that senses the surroundings, a control unit that processes that information, and the hardware that can run with instructions from the control unit.

They are explained in detail below.

About "cognition"

With cognition, you are required to know the circumstances around your car.

In a car, the driver
· Environment around your vehicle (cars, people, signs, etc.)
· Position where your vehicle is located (driving place, driving area (direct route, intersection etc.))
· Behaviors of the vehicle (accelerating, decelerating, etc.)
As you know, you can decide the next action (acceleration, deceleration, turn).

The driver can grasp the current situation from his or her eyes and direction feeling, information on the land intuition and the route up to that point, the stepping angle of the accelerator / brake, and the angle of the steering wheel.

What do you do with Autonomous Driving so that an Autonomous Driving system replacing a person.

[Know the surroundings of the vehicle]

Autonomous Driving vehicles, we have a camera that plays the role of human eyes and LiDAR that measures the distance by hitting light to gather information on the surroundings. With this camera, cars and people, signs, signals, white lines etc. are recognized. In addition, LiDAR measures the distance three-dimensionally depending on the type and measures the surrounding shape and the distance to surrounding objects.

There are two types of cameras, one monocular type and one stereo type used with one camera. Even though you think that you also have experience, just like stereotyping is easier to recognize the distance to the object than the monocular type, as well as the sense of distance becoming difficult to grasp one eye, the point of measuring the distance in terms of performance it is excellent.
However, because high-performance processing is becoming possible even for cost, installation location, monocular type, depending on the type you choose to realize.
For example, if you go for examples of vehicles that are on the market today, Nissan Serena 's "Pro Pilot" and Toyota' s safety sense etc. adopt monocular type.
Also, cameras are the same as human eyes and the detection accuracy will degrade at nighttime or in bad weather like rain or fog.

Therefore, for the purpose of assisting the camera, sensor fusion technology using infrared laser and millimeter wave radar is important, which can detect the distance to the surrounding objects in a wide range.

Even in Tesla's vehicle that implements the system of Autonomous Driving, the main awareness of the environment around the camera using the camera is also carried out, but also equipped with radar and ultrasonic sensor to assist it.

For cameras, image processing is more important than acquiring images. Various image processing such as whether you want to detect distances and obstacles like stereo cameras or whether you want to recognize from images is currently being developed.

[Know the position where your car is located]

For confirming the position of the vehicle, GPS which has already been put into practical use in car navigation systems etc. is mainly active. There are several kinds of GPS, and if you want to use it as a control of a vehicle of Autonomous Driving , accurate position information (errors in centimeters) is required.

For Autonomous Driving public roads, maps are important to keep track of where your car is now. Regarding maps that are called high precision maps with high accuracy and high information volume are required. This high-precision map is created based on map creation equipment developed by Mitsubishi Electric, such as MMS (mobile mapping system), and ZMP develops and creates technology to create necessary maps for its own Autonomous Driving.

Moreover, in order to accurately grasp where the vehicle is in the utilization of this high-accuracy map, we used point cloud information acquired by 3D-LiDAR and white line detection of the camera.

[Know the state of the car]

Autonomous Driving , is my car currently accelerating? Or is it slowing down? Or is it curving? You need to know about.
Therefore, in order to grasp the state of the own vehicle, a 6-axis inertial sensor which can detect acceleration, angular velocity (roll, pitch, yaw) of X, Y and Z axes is installed.

Also, at the same time, from the driving information of the vehicle, the movement of the own vehicle is judged and more accurate control is carried out.

About "judgment"

Autonomous Driving , it is necessary to judge the surrounding situation and the next action by using the above sensors and information.

Mechanical algorithms and judgment algorithms using artificial intelligence are used to determine whether to accelerate, decelerate, or turn next from information obtained by cognition.

For example, if there is a "white obstacle" in front of you, if it is like a plastic bag of supermarket, it does not matter if you proceed as it is, but if it was a box like white cardboard or polystyrene foam , You have to stop or avoid it.

Although it is possible to control to the safety side with an algorithm that simply stops because there is an object ahead, in order to realize a smoother traffic environment in a real environment, it is necessary to make judgments that can correspond to various cases.

About "operation"

In operation, it is required to move actuators operated by people mainly by programs. Therefore, if you express it simply, the operation in an Autonomous Driving vehicle will move the accelerator, brake, steering.

Recent automobiles are advancing in electricity and in the past, each device of a car was connected by wire, hydraulic pressure, gear, etc., but since each device is driven by an electrical signal, it is possible that various machines can be automated.

ZMP also realizes Autonomous Driving construction machines etc. by using IZAC of Autonomous Driving control software.

Technical elements being carried out by Autonomous Driving of ZMP

We also do Autonomous Driving by carrying out the work of "recognition", "judgment", "operation" as explained above.
Autonomous Driving software "IZAC" is responsible for that "cognition", "judgment", "operation".

Autonomous Driving software "IZAC" is explained in detail below.

Autonomous Driving software IZAC

Autonomous Driving software IZAC is a computer that has an interface for incorporating sensor information necessary for recognition and software for processing the sensor information.

The autonomous mobile technology of ZMP is based on this IZAC and it is software that is utilized in Auto taxi , home delivery robot, Autonomous Driving technology adaptation support service and so on.

Recognition in IZAC

Here we introduce some of the algorithms that IZAC is using for Autonomous Driving taxi development.
上記では、お台場の交差点を走行しているシーンにおける認識結果ですが、IZACのコンポーネントを活用して左折中に横断歩道を渡る人を認識して停車をしています。

その他にも、公道での自動運転車両の認知においては、

· Self position estimation
· Peripheral object recognition
· Line line detection
. Signal recognition

等を行い、自動運転に必要な認知作業をIZAC上で行っています。

IZAC's judgment

Here we introduce some of the judgment algorithms that IZAC is using for Autonomous Driving taxi development.

Using the judgment result of the Autonomous Driving vehicle on the public road,

· Driving route planning
· Obstacle avoidance on the road
· Follow up the preceding vehicle
· Driving judgment at intersection
· Lane change

We made judgment for and realized Autonomous Driving .

Operation with IZAC

Here, we introduce the operation which IZAC is using for Autonomous Driving taxi development.

Autonomous Driving vehicle is added to the steering, accelerator, brake, etc. described above,

· Winker, hazard
· Lamp lighting
· Taxi's automatic door

can be controlled automatically.

In order to realize level 4 or higher Autonomous Driving-remote control, remote monitoring system, emergency stop, dispatch system, etc. are also available.

Autonomous Driving technology development platform

In ZMP, Autonomous Driving as well as the development of the only software required to realize the (hardware) Autonomous Driving vehicle is also available.

This vehicle has been sold so far as RoboCar and you can choose its lineup according to the application.
RoboCar® SUV
Commercially available SUV vehicle based Autonomous Driving vehicle development platform
RoboCarMiniVan
RoboCar® MiniVan
Commercially available hybrid minivan based Autonomous Driving vehicle development platform
RoboCar® MV 2
Single-seat electric vehicle based Autonomous Driving development platform
RoboCar® 1/10
RoboCar® 1/10
Program controllable platform of radio control car type
For any questions regarding our products (vehicles/robots) , please feel free to contact us.​ ​
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