Autonomous driving and ADAS

All functions of ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System:
Advanced Driving Support System)​ ​

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) is an advanced driving support system (ADAS), which is used by automobiles to grasp the surrounding situation by using various sensors, to properly display and warn the driver, to realize safety and comfort for drivers and pedestrians, It is a collective term for functions that are involved in operations such as steering wheel and brakes, and that support driver operation. It is positioned at level 2 of Autonomous Driving.

This page introduces 12 functions that realize ADAS, including ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control System) which is a typical function of ADAS.

1. What is the function of ADAS?

As the basic performance of a car is said to be "running, turning, stopping", there is a driving source himself and being able to move freely according to driver's will. Originally, the purpose of the car's ECU involved in the driving operation of the vehicle was to improve the limit of this basic performance and to improve the responsiveness of the vehicle so that it can be operated faithfully to the driving intention of the driver.

For example, ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) and Brake Assist (BA) currently mounted on many automobiles are technologies that maintain the maximum braking force and running stability in the abrupt operation of the brake pedal , It is positioned as a support system that enhances the ability to avoid danger by driver operation.

In addition to these support systems, ADAS is a generic term for various functions that recognize the circumstances more precisely from sensors such as cameras mounted on vehicles and millimeter wave radars and highly support driver's driving .

Automobile manufacturers sell cars equipped with various ADAS functions. For example, Toyota calls ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), a typical ADAS function, "Radar Cruise Control". A link to the manufacturer's name and explanation page was posted for each function.

2. ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control System)

ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) is a "follow-up run" function that detects the vehicle ahead and runs while keeping constant the distance between vehicles. If there is no leading car, the driver can also keep running at the arbitrarily set speed.

The mechanism of ACC begins with the detection of surrounding information by external sensors such as cameras and radar. It transmits the detected information to the in-vehicle ECU, and detects the vehicle in front and its speed by Image Recognition technology and so on. Based on the detected data, the accelerator and brake are controlled instead of the driver. If the driver operates while ACC is operating, the driver's operation takes precedence.

When the ACC operates, the driver's sensation, such as the setting of the software such as the timing of acceleration, the deceleration method when the leading vehicle decelerates, etc., how to follow when the car in front is accelerated Changes greatly. It is necessary to design a software that ensures safety while ensuring that the driver does not feel uncomfortable as much as possible.

2-1. ACC name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the name of the representative domestic car maker ACC and a reference link.


Nissan  インテリジェントクルーズコントロール
 ホンダ  渋滞追従機能付アダプティブ・クルーズ・コントロール
Mazda  マツダレーダークルーズコントロール
Subaru Cruise control with all vehicle speed following function

Mitsubishi Motors

Radar cruise control system

Radar Cruise Control

Suzuki Active cruise control system

3. FCW (Forward Collision Warning: forward collision warning)

FCW (Forward collision warning) = Forward collision warning is a function that always detects a car running ahead and prompts the driver to warn and avoid an accident when the risk of collision increases. Although it may be installed as part of the above ACC function, there is also an example mounted on a drive recorder that can be attached later.

3-1. FCW names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The name of the FCW of the representative domestic car manufacturer and the reference link were posted in the table below.

Manufacture name Name of each manufacturer's FCW related function
Reference information page
Toyota Pre-crash safety * Warning · Automatic brake function
Nissan PFCW (forward collision prediction alarm)
Honda FCW (Forward Collision Warning)
Mazda Smart Brake Support (SBS)

Subaru Buri crash brake
Mitsubishi Motors Collision damage mitigation brake system (FCM)
Daihatsu Collision warning function (vehicle to pedestrian)
Suzuki Emergency brake

4. AEBS (Advanced Emergency Braking System: collision damage mitigation brake control device)

The collision damage mitigation brake control apparatus is also called CA (Collision Avoidance), and when the system determines that there is no further brake operation despite warning of the FCW function, and if the system can not avoid collision or collision as it is, It means a device that automatically activates the brake to reduce damage. AEBS is installed as an advanced form of FCW and may function as part of ACC.

4-1. AEBS names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the name of the representative domestic automobile manufacturer AEBS and a reference link.

 メーカー名  各メーカーのAEBS関連機能の名称
 トヨタ  プリクラッシュセーフティ※警告・自動ブレーキ機能
 ニッサン  インテリジェント エマージェンシーブレーキ
 ホンダ  衝突軽減ブレーキ〈CMBS〉
 マツダ  アドバンスト・スマート・シティ・ブレーキ・サポート(アドバンストSCBS)
 スバル  ブリクラッシュブレーキ
 三菱自動車  衝突被害軽減ブレーキシステム(FCM)
 ダイハツ  衝突回避支援ブレーキ機能
 スズキ  エマージェンシーブレーキ

Five. NV / PD (Night Vision / Pedestrian Detection: Night Vision / Pedestrian Detection)

Night vision is a function to display the image taken with an infrared camera and detect the heat source such as a pedestrian and display it on the display when it is difficult to visually confirm such as nighttime or bad weather. A function to combine processed images with images shot with ordinary cameras to display them has also been developed. Currently, cameras are expensive, so they are mainly equipped with luxury cars, but it is expected to spread in the future.
Night vision is a technology to detect pedestrians using infrared cameras, but there are systems that detect pedestrians only with stereo cameras, such as Subaru's eye site.

5-1. NV / PD names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The following table introduces pedestrian detection technology for each domestically produced car manufacturer. In addition to the infrared camera, it links to the page introducing the pedestrian detection function.

 メーカー名  各メーカーのNV/PD関連機能の名称
 トヨタ  ナイトビュー
 ホンダ Intelligent Night Vision System
 マツダ  アドバンスト・スマート・シティ・ブレーキ・サポート (アドバンストSCBS)
 スバル  アイサイトのステレオカメラ

Collision damage mitigation brake system (FCM)
 ダイハツ  衝突回避支援ブレーキ機能(対車両・対歩行者)
 スズキ Emergency brake


6. TSR (Traffic Sign Recognition)

It is a function to recognize a road sign from the image taken with the front camera and display the result on the driver. For example, it is possible to warn of speed prohibition by recognizing a sign of entry prohibition, warning not to mistakenly intrude, or comparing the speed restriction sign with the speed of the vehicle.

6-1. TSR names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The names of TSR related functions and reference links of representative domestic automobile manufacturers are listed in the table below.

Manufacture name

 トヨタ  Road sign assist
 ニッサン Prohibition of entrance sign detection

 ホンダ  標識認識機能
 マツダ  交通標識認識システム(TSR)
Suzuki  進入禁止標識検知

7. LDW (Lane Departure Warning: lane departure warning)

Lane Departure Warning (LDW) is a function to detect a lane on the road while driving at a constant speed or higher and warn the driver if the vehicle predicts deviation of the lane. It is mainly intended for use on expressways. If the camera recognizes the lane and does not emit a turn signal and behaves like departing from the lane, it warns you to vibrate the steering wheel, display on the display, or sound an alarm sound.

7-1. LDW name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the names and reference links of LDW related functions of representative domestic automobile manufacturers.

 メーカー名  各メーカーのLDW関連機能の名称


 ニッサン  LDW(車線逸脱警報)
 ホンダ  LKAS〈車線維持支援システム〉
 マツダ  LDWS(レーンデパーチャーワーニングシステム)
 スバル  警報&お知らせ機能
 三菱自動車  LDW(車線逸脱警報システム)
 ダイハツ  車線逸脱警報機能
 スズキ  車線逸脱警報機能

8. LKAS (Lane Keeping Assist System: Lane Departure Prevention Support System)

Lane Keep Assist (LKAS) is a function to detect the white line on the road by the camera in front, as with the above LDW, and to support the maintenance of the lane of the car. Compared with LDW, LKAS can be said to actively assist the lane keeping.

The function is outlined below.
① An external sensor such as a camera detects the white line on the road and estimates the shape of the road.
② Estimate the host vehicle position ahead from the detected road information, the speed of the host vehicle, the steering angle, etc.
③ Compare the estimated vehicle position with the desired vehicle position judged by the system.
④ If necessary, generate torque to the electric power steering and assist the lane keeping so that the driver can operate smoothly.

The driver can set the system ON / OFF arbitrarily, and if the driver steers while the system is under control, the driver's steering is prioritized.

8-1. LKAS name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the names and reference links of representative domestic automobile manufacturers' LKAS related functions.

 メーカー名  各メーカーのLKAS関連機能の名称
 トヨタ  レーントレーシングアシスト
 ニッサン  LDP(レーンディパーチャープリベンション)
 ホンダ  LKAS〈車線維持支援システム〉
 マツダ  LAS(レーンキープアシストシステム)
 スバル  アクティブレーンキープ
 スズキ  車線逸脱抑制機能

9. BSM (Blind Spot Monitoring)

BSM is a function that the radar installed inside the rear bumper detects a diagonally rearward vehicle and notifies the driver of the approaching vehicle by lighting the indicator provided on the mirror surface of the door mirror on the detected side. In addition, if you operate the blinker in that state, it warns with the blinking of the indicator and the alarm sound, urging the interruption of lane change.

9-1 BSM name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the names and reference links of BSM related functions of representative domestic automobile manufacturers.

 メーカー名 Name of BSM related function of each manufacturer


BSM (blind spot monitor)
 ニッサン  BSW(後側方車両検知警報)について
 ホンダ  ブラインドスポットインフォメーション
 マツダ  ブラインド・スポット・モニタリング(BSM)
 スバル Subaru Rear Vehicle Detection (Rear Side Warning Support System)
 三菱自動車 Back side vehicle detection warning system (with lane change assist function) [BSW / LCA]
 スズキ  全方位モニター

10. RCTA (Rear Cross Traffic Alert)

Rear Cross Traffic Alert is a function to detect vehicles approaching from the left and right when leaving back from the parking lot by using the BSM system and notifying the driver with an indicator such as a door mirror or a warning sound.

10-1. RCTA names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The names of the RCTA related functions of the representative domestic automobile manufacturers and reference links were posted in the table below.

 メーカー名 Name of each manufacturer's RCTA related function


Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA)
 ニッサン  BSW(後側方車両検知警報)について
 ホンダ  後退出庫サポート
 マツダ  リア・クロス・トラフィック・アラート(RCTA)
 スバル Subaru Rear Vehicle Detection (Rear Side Warning Support System)
 三菱自動車  後退時車両検知警報システム(RCTA)
 スズキ  MOD(移動物検知)

11. DM (Driver Monitoring)

Driver monitoring is a method of issuing a warning or issuing a warning when the system judges that the state in which the steering or accelerator has not been operated continues for a certain period of time or wobble behavior such as wandering, It is a function to stop at.

In recent years, the function of urging a break by sensing drowsiness and the like from the expression of the driver photographed with the camera inside the cabin is progressing.

11-1. DM name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the names and reference links of DM related functions of representative domestic automobile manufacturers.

 メーカー名 Name of each manufacturer's AFS related function



 ニッサン  インテリジェント DA(ふらつき警報)!page?guid-34b03b6c-bf7b-4df2-ae31-7db704de6694
 ホンダ  ふらつき運転検知機能
 マツダ  ドライバー・アテンション・アラート(DAA)
 スバル Alarm & notification function
 三菱自動車  ふらつき警報
 スズキ  ふらつき警報機能

12. AFS (Adoptive Front righting System: Automatic headlamp optical axis adjustment)

Automatic headlamp light axis adjustment is a function to adjust the optical axis of the headlight in the traveling direction according to the steering operation and the vehicle speed. It also includes a function to automatically switch between high beam and low beam. It ensures a good visibility at the corner of the mountain road at night and intersection, and it will be able to recognize the vehicle and the pedestrian at the end of the curve as soon as possible.

12-1. AFS names and links of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the name of the representative domestic automobile manufacturer AFS and a reference link.

 メーカー名 Name of each manufacturer's AFS related function


 アダプティブ フロントライティング システム
 ニッサン  アクティブAFS
 ホンダ  AFS
 マツダ  AFS(アダプティブフロントライティングシステム)
 スバル Steering interlocking headlamp
 三菱自動車  AFS(アダプティブ・フロントライティングシステム)
 ダイハツ  AFS
 スズキ  ハイビームアシスト機能

13. APA (Advanced Parking Assist: Advanced Parking Assist)

Altitude parking assistance is a function to recognize the frame to park the car and support necessary steering operation. There are functions corresponding to back parking and parallel parking. Ultrasonic sensors and cameras detect parking frames and surrounding vehicles, display and announce on the navigation screen, and guide them to the appropriate place. There is also one equipped with a round view monitor function which processes the image shot by the camera and looks at the position of the car directly from above.

13-1. APA name and link of major domestic manufacturers

The table below lists the name of the representative domestic automobile manufacturer's APA and a reference link.

 メーカー名  各メーカーのAPA関連機能の名称
 トヨタ  インテリジェントパーキングアシスト
 ニッサン  インテリジェントパーキングアシスト
 ホンダ  スマートパーキングアシストシステム
 マツダ  360°ビュー・モニター+フロントパーキングセンサ
 スズキ  パーキングアシスト

14. About the future of ADAS

The current ADAS focuses on functions based on information acquired by sensor devices attached to the car. In the future new technologies such as inter-vehicle communication, inter-road communication, OTA, dynamic map etc. will be introduced. Below is a summary of each of them.

14-1. Inter-Vehicle Communication System

Vehicle communication system is a system that adequately supports safe driving to drivers by acquiring mutual position, speed, control information, etc. by wireless communication between vehicles. For example, at car intersections with poor visibility, cars equipped with inter-vehicle communication communicate wirelessly, so that you can make sounds to prevent accidents at the encounter.

The challenge is communication between cars, which means that you can not enjoy adequate service unless the in-vehicle device gets widespread. If the system becomes more widespread, it will be possible to provide services in unspecified places where roadside machines between roads are not in place.

14-2. Inter-road communication system

It is a system that installs roadside equipment on the road, obtains road information such as signal and regulation by radio communication with the own vehicle, and provides safe driving support to the driver as necessary. For example, if a roadside device equipped with a camera is installed at an intersection with poor visibility, the roadside device senses a car that enters from the blind spot and transmits information to prevent a collision accident.

The challenge is that it is necessary to develop roadside facilities and it is difficult to proceed with the development of roadside equipment at a stretch from the aspect of cost.

14-3. OTA (Over The Air)

OTA (Over The Air) is a mechanism to update various software controlling cars through the Internet. Many people are experiencing updating software of PCs and smartphones that they normally use through the Internet.

As automobiles advance to electronics, many software is running while driving. When updating those software, you must bring it to a service factory such as a dealer. However, if you utilize the OTA software update function, you can instantly update the software, including recalls etc. Tesla's electric car already has such a function implemented.

Since ADAS technology is mobile based on software executing various algorithms, it is possible to provide the latest technology to users by using OTA technology.

On the other hand, in-vehicle systems such as ECUs installed in automobiles are becoming more complicated. Software not only updates a single ECU but also requires updating of the whole system, so it is necessary to solve many problems such as securing security and managing vehicles to be updated.

14-4. Dynamic Map

Dynamic map is the concept of new map information which is also called "AI read map". Drivers always grasp the surrounding situation with their own eyes and ears, not only information on maps and navigation, but also signs of signals, signs under construction, pedestrians and other car movements. Various surrounding information is also important for Autonomous Driving vehicles. Dynamic map is a function that improves the cognitive performance of Autonomous Driving vehicles by combining high-precision three-dimensional map data with dynamic information that changes constantly such as traffic regulation, road construction, accidents and congestion.

By linking dynamic map technology with the ADAS function, it becomes possible to grasp the surrounding information more precisely, and it is possible to realize a more advanced driving support system.

15. Diffusion status of ADAS function

According to "ADAS function database Japan version" issued by SBD Japan in December 2017, the ADAS function was installed mainly on imported luxury cars until a few years ago, but in recent years the ADAS function to domestically produced popular cars The installation was also progressing. The installation of the ADAS function is also expanding in light cars and minivan types peculiar to the Japanese market.
For example, collision avoidance function is installed in 78% of minicars and 68% of minivans. It can be said that the ADAS function is becoming more common.

16. User-focused ADAS function

According to the user questionnaire conducted by Sumisho ABeam Automotive Research Institute in 2015, 48% of users considered collision damage mitigation brake the most important. Then ACC 18%, lane keep assist is 10%. It is strong that there is a strong need for avoiding collision accidents.

Reference Link Sumisho ABeam Automobile Research Institute

17. Products available for ADAS development

RC car size robot car RoboCar 1/10

RoboCar 1/10 is available as a product that you can use to deepen your understanding of ADAS development and technology listed above.
This product is a vehicle that can be operated by radio control car size program, it is possible to create programs in C ++ and experiment with various logic.
As an installed sensor, we have 8 infrared sensors, wide angle cameras up to 2, and laser range finder in front and behind, which can detect obstacles in the surroundings. RoboCar 1/10 is adopting ZMP 's RoboCar 1/10 as a material for a new graduate education program that internally develops system development engineers in Continental Automotive, which is driving the world even in the field of Autonomous Driving .
RoboCar® 1/10
RoboCar® 1/10
Program controllable platform of radio control car type

Stereo camera unit for research and development RoboVision 2s

In addition, RoboVision 2s, a stereo camera unit capable of Image Recognition , obstacle detection, front vehicle following function such as millimeter wave, etc., can be used for ADAS · Autonomous Driving development.
This product is a stereo camera system with two Sony super high sensitivity CMOS image sensors IMX 224 mounted and can be imported into PC with USB 3.0.
Stereo camera unit
RoboVision® 2s
A stereo camera unit that can be easily used for research and development

18. Inquiries

For inquiries regarding the above & document request etc, please contact us.