Autonomous Driving and ADAS

Introduction of 'sensor' for Autonomous driving technology

Research and development of "autonomous driving" and "robot" is one of the technologies attracted by many people around the world. Even in ZMP, research and development of "autonomous driving" technology is progressing day by day. Currently we are approaching practical use of services. This time we introduce the types of sensing units (sensors) indispensable for the "autonomous driving" technology and the features of each sensor brand in a comprehensive way!

What is the role of sensor in " Autonomous Driving "

In "ADAS (advanced driving support system)" and "autonomous driving", in order to ensure the safety of the car, it is necessary to constantly recognize the surrounding environment such as moving objects, obstacles and road shape around the vehicle while driving."sensor"which is explained in this page is installed in the car is to recognize the external environment . "Sensor" plays the role of "eye" in autonomous operation. However, like human being,two eyes alone can not grasp the surroundings.Therefore, "Autonomous operation" carries various kinds of "sensors".

"Sensor" introduced are "3D-LiDAR" and "stereo camera" which are the most important periphery recognition among " Autonomous Driving " technology.

3D-LiDAR measuring distance by reflection of laser light

LiDAR (Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology using light, is a "sensor" which measures the distance by measuring the scattered light in the pulsed laser irradiation.

Main applications include "Measuring distances to front obstacles", "Estimating self position of moving objects" ,"Detecting travelable areas", etc.

Compared to "millimeter wave radar" which is introduced in many cars, we can detect spaces as well as obstacles because of sensing with infrared light, which is an electromagnetic wave of short wavelength.

Let's see what kinds of products are in 3D-LiDAR.

"Robosense: RS-LiDAR" which is widely adopted in China's Autonomous Driving development

中国の3D-LiDARメーカーのRoboSenseの製品ラインナップを紹介します。製品は機械式の16,32,128レイヤーに加え、近距離型RS-Pearl、また、研究開発向けに提供を開始したMEMS式のLiDARを紹介しています。

It is possible to create 3D maps, self-position estimation, other vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles, etc.

"Konica Minolta: 3D laser radar" Unique optical technology realizes space-free space scan​ ​

Konica Minolta's 3D Laser Radar is a TOF (Time Of Flight) laser radar that can scan up to 24 layers in the vertical direction and up to 120 ° horizontal field of view. Even at night, it is possible to detect and observe people and objects in real time while distinguishing between people, topographies, structures and other objects without being affected by lights such as street lights.

Moreover, it can be used in various fields such as sports and marketing because it can detect a wide range with high accuracy by unique optical technology.

"HOKUYO: YVT-35LX" Enhanced convenience functions such as IMU sensor and PPS input​ ​

HOKUYO's YVT-35LX is a 3D LiDAR capable of outputting abundant point cloud data of 1 cycle 2590 points, increasing the number of point groups by interlacing function and increasing the degree of analysis.

For the range finding principle, TOF method by pulse light is adopted as the distance measuring principle were width, depth and height are measured which were difficult to measure in 2 dimensions.

In addition, convenient functions such as IMU sensor and PPS input are also enriched.

Ibeo's latest model "Ibeo: ScaLa" with long history in the LiDAR industry for vehicles

Germany's Ibeo company has continued to develop performance that overturns the common sense of the LiDAR industry such as "object tracking performance", "long distance measurement function", "all weather" and so on.

ScaLa detects objects in the vicinity of the vehicle such as trees and guardrails from stationary objects to moving objects such as cars, motorbikes and pedestrians.

【Relationship between Autonomous Driving development of ZMP and ibeo sensor】

ZMP has built a control algorithm by incorporating ibeo's sensor as a standard sensor for external sensing in the development of RoboCar HV, RoboCar MiniVan's Autonomous Driving technique.

[Autonomous Driving example of mounting ibeo sensor to a vehicle]

Autonomous Driving vehicle sensor configuration (example)
Object detection image using ibeo ScaLa
Autonomous driving vehicle sensor configuration (example)
Object detection image using ibeo ScaLa
ZMP do consulting and sales at hardware aspects such as mounting the sensor like ibeo.

Please contact us if you are considering measurement and development using ibeo's sensor.

Stereo camera with two cameras for distance measurement

Stereo camera is same like the principle that people see things by shooting an object simultaneously from a plurality of different directions using two cameras on the left and right.From the pixel position information,it is a "sensor" which measures information in the depth direction and gives a distance to the object.

In "ADAS (advanced driving support system)" and " Autonomous Driving ", the stereo camera (stereo vision) is used for driving support such as autonomous braking and white line recognition, using the distance between vehicles in front and acquired images.

Let's introduce the stereo camera developed by ZMP.

"ZMP: Robo Vision 2s" Compact size + USB image feed makes it easy to acquire images​ ​

RoboVision 2s is a general-purpose stereo camera that has a base length of 220 mm, a CMOS sensor manufactured by Sony as an image sensor, an interface compatible with USB 3.0 connection, and capable of easily measuring images from image acquisition board to software ZMP design and manufacture.

Software for PC, stereo image viewer is also included, so it is possible to evaluate immediately after purchasing. In addition, SDK is also prepared for development and you can develop applications and software according to what you want to do.

"ZMP: RoboVision 3" Measure even wider and farther with 4-eye camera​ ​

RoboVision 3 with two stereo cameras (four eyes) is a stereo camera that can sense with a distance and a field of view that has a maximum measuring distance of 150 m and a horizontal viewing angle of 110 °.

Detection of an oncoming vehicle from a distance when turning right at the intersection which was difficult in the past,is now possible to detect a wide range of pedestrians and vehicles at the intersection right turn left.

The image sensor adopts the newest Sony made high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor IMX390 for automotive use.
Simultaneous processing of HDR and flicker suppression of LED signal is possible and it is expected to greatly improve important recognition and judgment function in "ADAS" and " Autonomous Driving ".

Summary

This time, we introduced "sensing unit (sensor)" handled by ZMP together. These "sensors" are used not only in research and development of Autonomous Driving technology but also in many fields such as robot development and research activities at university.Furthermore, to make practical use of future Autonomous Driving , the improvement of the performance of each sensor offers a host attention.

Because the sensor used differs depending on research and experiment contents, those who are anxious to know "Which sensor is good to use ..." Please consult once from the link below.

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