Autonomous Driving and ADAS

ADAS (Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems,
Basic information on development of advanced driving support system)

In developing ADAS (Advanced Driving Support System), here we explain the typical functions of ADAS, including ACC, and the equipment and technology supporting ADAS such as sensors and ECU.

We also introduce seminars, news information and ZMP solutions that can obtain valuable information on ADAS development.

1. Introduction of specific functions of ADAS

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) is a system in which the vehicle itself grasps the surrounding information in order to realize the safety and comfort of the driver, accurately displays and warns the driver, replaces the driver.It is a collective term for functions that support driving such as controlling a car. In the level classification of Autonomous Driving defined by SAE (American Automotive Engineers Association), it is positioned at level 2 where the driver carries out the driving task.

In this section, we introduce the terms that realize ADAS, such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control System) system, which is a typical function of ADAS, and its specific functions and applications as follows.

For details on the ADAS function, see "All of ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) function.

1-1. ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control System)

ACC is the function that the ECU manipulates the accelerator and brake of a car based on information from the external sensor. If you have a car in front, you can keep following constant distance while maintaining constant inter-vehicle distance. Also, if there is no leading car, the driver sets at an arbitrary speed and travels.

1-2. FCW (Forward Collision Warning: forward collision warning)

FCW is a function to prompt warning and avoidance operation to the driver in case the risk of collision increases due to the detection of the preceding vehicle, the distance between cars is close, or the preceding vehicle is stepping on a sudden braking.

1-3. AEBS (Advanced Emergency Braking System: collision damage mitigation brake control device)

AEBS is also called CA (Collision Avoidance), and when the system decides that the collision can not be avoided despite FCW warning the driver and urging the collision avoidance, the brakes are automatically operated and the collision It is a function to alleviate the damage of time.

1-4. NV / PD (Night Vision / Pedestrian Detection: Night Vision / Pedestrian Detection)

Night vision / pedestrian detection is displayed as a heat source on a dedicated display when it is difficult to visually confirm by using an infrared camera, such as at night or when the fog is dense. For pedestrian detection, there are cases using stereo cameras.

1-5. TSR (Traffic Sign Recognition)

It recognizes traffic signs such as temporary stop, entry prohibition, and speed limit from the image data taken by the camera, and displays appropriate warning traffic information to the driver.

1-6. LDW (Lane Departure Warning: lane departure warning)

It detects the lane on the road and warns the driver when the vehicle predicts deviation of the lane. If the camera recognizes the lane and does not emit a turn signal and behaves like departing from the lane, it warns you to vibrate the steering wheel, display on the display, or sound an alarm sound.

1-7. LKAS (Lane Keeping Assist System: Lane Departure Prevention Support System)

In addition to the above-mentioned LDW (Lane Departure Warning), operation assistance for generating torque to power steering is performed. In addition to warning the driver, the system actively involved in driving becomes LKAS.

1-8. BSM (Blind Spot Monitoring)

It is a function to monitor the vehicle approaching from the rear side of the driver's blind spot and display it on the mirror surface of the door mirror or on the display.

1-9. Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA)

It is a function to detect a person crossing the back of the car, ultrasonic sensor, etc. and issue a warning sound etc. to the driver to call attention.

1-10. DM (Driver Monitoring: Driver Monitoring)

We grasp the driving situation from the expressions of the driver during driving and steering operation etc. and display a warning on the display when judging that it is in trouble with driving. Depending on the situation, there are cases where the car is automatically stopped.

1-11. AFS (Adoptive Front righting System: Automatic headlamp optical axis adjustment)

When entering curves and intersections at night, it is a function to automatically adjust the direction of lighting the headlights according to the direction of the steering wheel. It also includes the function to detect the presence of oncoming vehicles and pedestrians and switch between high beam and low beam.

1-12 APA (Advanced Parking Assist: Advanced Parking Assist)

There was a rear monitor and back sonar in the function that supports parking than before. In recent years, it has been proposed to attach a line for predicting the course of the vehicle according to the steering angle of the steering wheel to the monitor, to guide the turning timing at the time of parallel parking by voice, to detect the lane marking, to set the target parking position of the vehicle , And even the function that the car carries out the parking operation itself has been developed.
RoboCar 1/10
RoboCar 1/10
Program controllable platform of radio control car type

2. About the difference between ADAS and AD ( Autonomous Driving )

The biggest difference between ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistance System) and AD ( Autonomous Driving ) lies in how far the driver is involved in driving a car. ADAS is an idea to enhance the function to prevent accidents as much as possible before the driver drives a car, and as far as possible to reach the destination comfortably. On the other hand, Autonomous Driving is the idea that it will no longer be involved by humans and will reach the destination at the discretion of the car.
SAE (Automotive Engineers Association of America) divides the level of Autonomous Driving into five stages as below. We also adopt this classification in Japan.
Level 0: No operation automation
Level 1: Driving assistance
Level 2: Partial operation automation
Level 3: Conditional operation automation
Level 4: Advanced operation automation
Level 5: Full operation automation
Basically, the driver performs tasks for level 0 to level 2, but for level 3 or higher, the operation task is Autonomous Driving system, that is, the car itself will judge.
Since ADAS is the subject of the driving task, the driver is a generic name of the driving support function corresponding to Autonomous Driving level 2.

3. ADAS technical elements

Technologies for realizing the function of ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) include a sensor technology for grasping the circumstances of the outside world, on-vehicle ECUs that control the car body based on the obtained information, and on-vehicle ECUs linked fast and accurately.There are various elements such as an in-vehicle network that makes it possible, an in-vehicle locator that accurately identifies its location.

For an overview of the technical elements of ADAS, see "Technologies supporting ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System).

3-1. Onboard Sensing

The camera used for ADAS requires two functions: viewing and sensing. The purpose of the viewing function is mainly to provide complementary information such as blind spot information to the driver.
The sensing function is a function to extract information necessary for control of the car from pictures taken by the camera such as pedestrians and traffic signs. Depending on the information you take out, you may call attention to the driver, or you may control the car such as accelerator, brake, steering wheel.

The camera can also be classified into a monocular camera and a stereo camera. A stereo camera has two lenses like a human eye, enabling a more accurate distance measurement. For in-vehicle cameras, "On-vehicle camera in ADAS (Advanced Driving Support System)"

3-1-1 Cameras for ADAS
For the camera used for ADAS, viewing sensing, two functions are required. The purpose of the viewing function is mainly to provide complementary information such as blind spot information to the driver.
The sensing function is a function to extract information necessary for control of the car from pictures taken by the camera such as pedestrians and traffic signs. Depending on the information you take out, you may call attention to the driver, or you may control the car such as accelerator, brake, steering wheel.

The camera can also be classified into a monocular camera and a stereo camera. A stereo camera has two lenses like a human eye, enabling a more accurate distance measurement. For in-vehicle cameras, "On-vehicle camera in ADAS (Advanced Driving Support System)"

3-1-2. Radar for ADAS
In ADAS radar is mainly millimeter wave radar. Millimeter wave radar measures the reflected waves of radio waves emitted by the equipment and detects the position and speed of the target object. Compared to cameras and laser radar, it is less susceptible to rain, fog, backlighting, etc., and it is resistant to nighttime or bad weather when visibility is bad. This feature is utilized as a sensor to detect pedestrians and other cars.
3-3-3. LiDAR for ADAS
LiDAR is an abbreviation for Light Detection and Ranging, which is translated into laser image detection and ranging. It is one of remote sensing technology using light. Compared with millimeter wave radar, distance measurement with surrounding objects such as obstacles can be done in several centimeters.

3-2. In-vehicle Locator

A locator is a device that accurately measures its location. Until now, it was utilized by car navigation etc. based on GPS satellites. However, when implementing various ADAS functions, identification of the position of the vehicle in lane units is required. For that purpose, we will use the gyro sensor, vehicle speed measurement etc. to measure the current position with higher accuracy.

3-3. On-vehicle ECU

Many ECUs (electronic control devices) are installed in modern automobiles where electronic control is advancing. It is said that there are dozens of mass-market vehicles and more than 200 ECUs are installed in luxury cars. The ECU in ADAS plays a central role in extracting necessary information based on the data acquired by the external sensor, alerting the driver and warning, controlling steering, accelerator, brake, etc. I will.

3-4. Automotive Network

Collaboration among ECUs is important for automobiles equipped with a large number of ECUs. A typical protocol for each ECU to communicate properly is CAN (Controller Area Network). Other standards include Ethernet, FlexRay, LIN, MOST and others. There is also communication with the outside world via TCP / IP as a connected car connected to the Internet.

3-5. Positioning of HMI in ADAS

HMI is an abbreviation for Human Machine Interface, which is a generic term for display and operation necessary for people and machines to exchange information.
Automobiles equipped with the ADAS function have many sensors including cameras. Those sensors acquire a large amount of data and alert the driver and give a warning to the driver as a result of the ECU's calculation based on them, but there is a limit to the amount of information that people can recognize while driving . Therefore, the concept that vehicles provide information in a proper form to the driver is collectively called HMI. The design of the HMI is an important element in ADAS that urges the driver to warn or warn for driving support.

For HMI positioning in ADAS, see "Positioning of HMI (Human Machine Interface) in ADAS developmentI'm going to explain in detail.

3-6. Technologies expected for ADAS in the future

Technologies such as vehicle communication systems, inter-road communication systems, dynamic maps, etc. are attracting attention in order to further advance ADAS and Autonomous Driving .

4. About ADAS test

In developing the concrete functions of ADAS such as ACC and FCW mentioned above, there are many factors such as information presentation to the driver via sensors, in-vehicle ECU, HMI, control of automobile, etc. For these developments, we must test various situations that can occur in actual traffic environments. Based on the concepts such as model-based development and HIL which are current general development methods for the necessary tests at the time of ADAS development,About test of ADAS (Advanced Driving Support System)"This page explains the overview on the page.

5. ADAS related seminar information

ADAS related technology is evolving day by day. Mainly for the purpose of sharing the latest technical information, development makers and think tanks hold various exhibitions and seminars. ZMP also exhibits at various exhibitions and introduces our technology to everyone. As a seminar sponsored by the company, "ZMP Forum" is held once a year, and ADAS related information is delivered.

5-1. Introduction of ZMP related seminars

Since 2007, ZMP is called "ZMP Forum" once a year and holds the latest research presentations by ZMP, seminars on technical announcements related to ADAS and Autonomous Driving . It is scheduled to be held in front of Bellesalle Iidabashi station on July 18, 19 and 20 this year in 2018 as well. For more information"Announcement of ZMP Forum 2018.

6. ZMP's ADAS related product information

ZMP has devices and solutions suitable for ADAS related development and verification. We can support ADAS related development from various angles, from solutions such as real road vehicle inspection for testing and evaluation of ADAS equipment, to device related items such as stereo cameras and laser LiDAR, Image Recognition algorithms and development software. For more information​ ​please refer to Product Info. Also"Cases"We introduce various ZMP solution examples.

Product / service information
Introducing the RoboCar series, stereo camera, various sensors & loggers
User case introduction
User examples of RoboCar series and logistics support robot CarriRo introduced

7. ADAS related news

The press releases and news related to ADAS in ZMP are introduced below.

8. Inquiry, document request

For inquiries about the above, document request etc, please contact us below.